The complete list of Windows keyboard shortcuts

Window Key.

What is the Windows key?

[dropcap]T[/dropcap]he Windows key is a standard key on most keyboards on computers built to use a [highlight]Windows operating system. It is labeled with a Windows logo, and is usually placed between the Ctrl and Alt keys [/highlight] on the left side of the keyboard; there may be a second identical key on the right side as well.

Pressing Win (the Windows key) on its own will do the following:

  • Windows 10 and 7: Bring up the Start menu
  • Windows 8.x: Toggle between the Start screen and the current application

Pressing Win in combination with other keys will access shortcuts; these will vary based on the version of Windows you are using.



The mouse is an input device which is moved on a flat surface called the mouse pad. When we move the mouse, a pointer called mouse pointer moves on the screen and it is used to point to things on the screen. Normally, the mouse has 2 or 3 buttons on top.



Moving the mouse is nothing but dragging the mouse on the mouse pad so that the mouse pointer moves in the direction you want, without touching the buttons. This action allows you to point to things on the screen.


Clicking is used to select an object on the screen. To do this, first we need to make the pointer point to that object and then press the left button once and release the button immediately.



It requires some practice for the new users.

Click and Drag

This is used to move an object from one place to another. To do this, we need to hold the left button down and while holding it down, we need to move the mouse to the place we want.

Right Click

If you point to an item and click on the right button, you will be provided with a context sensitive menu. This menu provides almost all the facilities offered by menu as well as tool bars. We will learn more about this as and when it is required.


When you switch on the computer, Windows XP automatically starts loading from the Hard disk (provided it is your default operating system). While loading, it checks the memory
[pullquote-right]“disk drives etc. Once this is over, it starts loading files necessary for the GUI interface, after which it displays a screen. ”[/pullquote-right]and hardware components such as keyboard, This opening screen of Windows XP is called the Desktop.


The basic working platform in Windows XP is the Desktop. It contains several Icons like My Computer, My Documents etc. These are some of the standard icons. Apart from these, you can also create icons for the applications that you use frequently and place them on the desktop.

[column size=”one-half”]The desktop also contains a Taskbar, which is a narrow strip, normally displayed at the bottom of the screen. On the left, [/column] it has the [highlight]Start button. When you click on the Start button, the Start menu appears on the left side of the screen. Using the [/highlight]Start menu, you can start any application that you have installed in your computer.Next to the Start button is the Quick Launch Toolbar. This contains icons that allow you to select some commonly used internet-related applications. On the extreme right is the Systems Tray, which contains the Clock and icons for other utilities. The space between the Quick Launch Toolbar and the Systems Tray is used to display buttons for the applications [highlight]currently being used.[/highlight]


The Start menu is like a launch pad from which you can do most of the things you want to do with Windows XP. Using this menu, you can start applications, change the settings of your computer, find files, get help etc. The Start menu appears when you click on the Start button on the taskbar.

You can have two different Start menus, one is the usual Start menu and another one is Classic Start menu.To select an option from this menu, [column size=”one-third” [highlight]last=”true”]Just move the mouse pointer over the options, till the one that you want is highlighted. Now, with the mouse, just click on the option which is highlighted.[/highlight]

Can you see an arrow at the right of ‘All Programs’ on the Start menu? A right arrow indicates the presence of one or more levels of submenu.

To select an option on the submenu, move the mouse pointer sideways till one option on the submenu gets highlighted. Now, move the mouse pointer up/down till the option that you want is highlighted and then click.


[dropcap]S[/dropcap]tarting an application can be done in many ways in XP. But there are two ways which are most frequently used.

Using icons on the desktop

[dropcap]I[/dropcap]f you want to start an application, just see if its icon is available on the desktop. If it is available, just double-click on it to start the application. This is the easiest way to start an application. If the icon is not available on the desktop, you can create one. Normally, you may want to create a desktop shortcut for the most frequently used Applications.

Using the Start Menu

[dropcap]I[/dropcap]t is not possible to have icons for all the applications on the desktop. So, how do we start the applications then? You can use the Start menu, to start applications, for which icons [highlight]are not available on the desktop. Click on the Start button on the taskbar and select the option that you want [/highlight] from any one of the menus or submenus that appear.

Read More

For example, to start the application ‘Notepad’,

Click on the Start button, and then click on All Programs. Select Accessories from the submenu, and then click on Notepad.

The above operation can be performed by keyboard operations also.

The Windows key is a standard key on most keyboards on computers built to use a Windows operating system. It is labeled with a Windows logo, and is usually placed between the Ctrl and Alt keys on the left side of the keyboard; there may be a second identical key on the right side as well.

File Extension DMG ..Mark Debattista

[dropcap]F[/dropcap]or the avoidance of doubt .DMG files aren’t actually “pictures” of Apple Mac software. Instead the .DMG file extension identifies Macintosh OS X (ie the latest version of the Mac operating system) disk image files. In the context of IT and computer software the phrase “disk image” means something other than what we might otherwise understand to be a photo of a disk, or an icon depicting a disk.

Indeed, in this context, “disk images” are similar (if still very distinct) to software copies and hard disk backups. The traditional copying of a CD, DVD, hard disk, or other media, would require that the computer read the file structure of the media and copy that across to somewhere else. However this only works if the PC has access to all those files: your PC won’t (or at least not easily) be able to copy files that are protected, encrypted or otherwise not designed to be read by the system (such as the content of bootable disks).

Check Grammar Software – Easily Correct Your Documents!.. Gil Lavitov

 [dropcap]C[/dropcap]heck Grammar Software enables us not only write better English, but improve our communication skills. We all know that improving our English writing skills require extensive exercises and discipline; however, it seems that these innovative language processing solutions enable us to easily improve our writing performance and our overall writing skills. Discover the latest innovative ideas that can help you not only proofread your writing assignments, but transform your writing stylish and elegant.

Basic introduction

[dropcap]C[/dropcap]heck Grammar Software are designed to ensure that your English writing matches the basic grammar and punctuation rules. Most of these solutions instantly identify and correct your writing errors and enable you to further edit your writing. These software programs are based on artificial intelligence that automatically analyzes digital text based on a growing database of similar ‘correct’ text. In most cases these solutions enables us to do the following: checking for proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling, and sometimes few of them offer text enrichment.

computer solution

 [dropcap]T[/dropcap]he IT support department of antivirus company MY Security  Below are the top 10 most common PC problems and some tips on solving them from security.

1: My computer is slow.
The most common problem  all of computer. A slow computer can create many frustrations but fortunately there is something you can do yourself before you replace it.we get computer solution.
2: My computer freezes.
it is far more serious than a slow PC. In many cases it is caused by viruses. especially spyware that has been installed on your computer.and then get solution.
3: I forgot to backup my data.
Backup is still an overlooked security task for many home users.  Important documents, photos, music libraries and emails are automatically stored on your computer’s hard drive which is a mechanical and electrical device.and get solution.
4: I get bombarded with adware and my home page has changed.
Many do not notice that they often accept a new toolbar when they download free programs such as Adobe Reader. For example Adobe Reader.


The rectangular area appearing on the desktop, when we start an application is called a window. You can have several windows on your desktop at the same time. These windows may be big or small. They may be overlapping others or one beside the other.

Parts of a Window,

You can move the window around the desktop, change its size, and hide it from your view and so on. Let us start the Notepad application to learn these operations. Click on Start → All Programs → Accessories → Notepad.

The notepad Application window opens.

 Windows XP is designed in such a way that all windows are similar. The methods used for resizing, moving and closing the window are the same for all windows.
At the top of the window is the Title Bar. The title bar tells you the name of the application. There is an exception however; Windows Explorer will not show its name in the title bar. The tile bar also contains 3 sizing buttons, at the top right corner.

Minimize Button:

This button is used to reduce the size of the window to a button on the taskbar. Minimizing a window does not close it; it simply hides it from you.

Maximize Button:

Click on this button to enlarge the window to fill the entire desktop.

Resize Button:

This button is used to restore the window to its original size i.e., to the size before you maximized it.

 Close Button:

  This button is used to close a window. Closing a window will remove its contents from memory and screen.

Menu Bar:

Below the title bar is Menu Bar. This displays the various menus available to you. When you click on a menu option, says File, all the sub-options appear as a drop down menu. You can select any one of them by pointing to it with the mouse pointer and then clicking it.

For example, to save a file, you can click on the File menu and select Save from the drop-down list. If you save the file for the first time, you may be prompted to enter the name of the file.

Moving a Window

While working with multiple windows, you may face a situation wherein you need to move a window to a different location on the desktop. You can do so by clicking and dragging the title bar of the window. Please also note that you cannot drag a window when it is either maximized or minimized.

Change the size of a Window

Point to the window border with the mouse. The mouse pointer changes like a double-headed arrow. Click and drag this arrow to increase/decrease the size of the window. To change the length and breadth simultaneously, move the mouse pointer to either of the bottom corners and do the above operation.


One important feature of Windows XP is that it allows the users to customize their desktop. Let us see how to do it?

Customizing Taskbar Position:

You can move the taskbar to any of the four sides of the desktop, unless it is locked. To do this, place the mouse pointer in an empty area on the taskbar. Then click and drag the taskbar to any of the sides where you want it to be placed

Size: To change the size of the taskbar, point to the edge of the taskbar. Now the mouse pointer will change into a double-headed arrow. Click and drag the mouse to increase/decrease the size of the taskbar. Taskbar Settings: Right click on the empty area of the taskbar.

From the shortcut menu,

Select toolbars to add/delete a toolbar like address, links etc. You can arrange the windows the way you want with ‘Cascade Windows’, ‘Tile Windows horizontally’, ‘Tile Windows vertically’ and ‘Show Desktop’ shows the Desktop. Click on Task Manager to see the various processes running and also to perform operations like ‘End Task’ etc. To make the Taskbar fixed, click on ‘Lock the Taskbar’ so that the taskbar cannot be moved. Clicking on Properties will open the Taskbar and Start menu properties windows under the Taskbar tab. You can try selecting and deselecting the various options listed there to customize the taskbar. Changing it into Start Menu tab will give you the option to change the start menu style.

Changing Wallpaper:

Wallpaper is the background of your desktop. There are several wallpapers that come along with XP. You can choose one among them or you can also use a picture of your own. Right click on the blank area of the desktop. A menu pops up. Click on ‘Properties’. The ‘Display Properties’ dialog box appears. Click on Desktop tab. It looks similar to the figure below.

From the list of wallpapers, select the one you want. You can see a preview on the top half of the window. If you like it, click on Apply and then on OK.

Screen Savers:

With the constantly improving technology, screen savers are nowadays used more as a fun rather than for a specific purpose. Click on Screen Saver tab in the Display Properties dialog box. Click on the drop down list box just below the screen saver prompt. A list of available screensaver would appear as below. Select any one and a preview would appear at the top half of the window. Specify the time to wait before displaying.

Selecting Files/Folders Any action such as moving, copying or deleting a file or a folder would require the file/folder to be selected before being moved/copied/deleted. To select a file/folder, just click on it to make it highlighted. Selecting more than one file/folder can be done in any of the following ways.

1. If you want to select consecutive files/folders, click on the first file/folder. Then point the mouse pointer to the last file/folder, hold the SHIFT key down and click.

2. If the files/folders to be selected are not consecutive, then click on the first file. Move the mouse pointer to the second file to be selected and click while holding the Ctrl key down. Repeat the procedure for each of the file to be selected. If you select a file wrongly, to deselect it, click on it while holding the Ctrl key down.

Move the selected items

Copy the selected items Publish the selected items on the Web Email the selected items Delete the selected items

Now, click on Move the selected items option. You will be provided with Move Items List Box. Browse and select the desired destination to move items to. Once this is done, the items are moved automatically. That’s it!! Please remember that, after moving, the items will not be available in the source destination. This can also be done from the Edit menu. Just try it out and see!!

Renaming Files/Folders

Sometimes, you might have stored the file in one name and may want to rename it later. Renaming a file/folder can be done in any of the following ways.

1. Click the file/folder to be renamed. From the Explorer Bar, click on Rename this file. The name of the selected file gets highlighted. Now, type the new name and press ENTER. The file gets displayed with the new name. The second and third methods can be followed irrespective of whether you are in Explorer Bar view or Folder Bar view.

2. Right click on the file/folder to be renamed. Select Rename from the shortcut menu that appears. Type the new name and press ENTER.

3. Select the file. From the Menu Bar, select File->Rename and complete the procedure as given above.

Copying Files/Folders

Copying a file leaves the original file as it is and creates a fresh copy of the file at the destination location. To copy the files, first select the files to be copied. Then copy the items using any of the following methods. Click on the Edit menu and select Copy Right-Click on the selection and select Copy from the shortcut menu Use Keyboard combination Ctrl+c to Copy Now, click on the destination folder and Paste the items using any of the following methods. Click on the Edit menu and select Paste Right-Click on the folder and select Paste from the shortcut menu Use Keyboard combination Ctrl+v to Paste

You can copy the selected files using Explorer Bar also. After selecting the items to be copied, click on Copy the selected items option from the Explorer Bar. You can see a Copy Items List Box. Browse and select the desired location to copy the files. That’s it! You can also create a new folder (if required) using the Make New Folder button.

Deleting Files/Folders

There is a special folder called Recycle Bin to hold the deleted files. As soon as you delete a file, it goes to the Recycle Bin. You can empty the recycle bin whenever you want. Recycle Bin has an option to restore the deleted file to the original location. This can be used to retrieve the file, in case it was deleted by mistake. First, select the files to be deleted. Right-click on the selection to get the shortcut menu. Select Delete from the shortcut menu. The files will get deleted; In other words, the files get moved to the Recycle Bin. Just like Move and Copy, if you want to Delete from the Explorer Bar, click on the Delete the selected items option and follow the procedure as described in Move/Copy.

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